Food additives have become a necessity of all
types of food products and food industry. Right from the aroma of the
beverage, the texture of the food and its visual appeal, has to be
enriched to make it acceptable.
||21 CFR Section 73.30, 73.1030 and
||Seed of Bixa Orellana
||Carotenoids Bixin and Norbixin
||Water- and oil-soluble
||Fades in strong or direct light
Stable in Alkaline mediums
Degrades in acids
Degrades by oxidation
Resistant to microbial attack
||Bixin is oil soluble
Alkaline Norbixin is water soluble
||Dairy products, Bakery and Snack
Annatto has been used since the ancient times. The color represented fire,
sun and blood in early American Indian civilizations. The color was used for
food, dying clothes, and coloring the body during ceremonies. It is said to
have medicinal properties.
Annatto is yellow, natural food colorant obtained from the seeds of the
Bixa Orella tree. The pigments that produce this yellow to orange color
range are the carotenoids, bixin and norbixin. The concentration of the
color is expressed as a percentage of these compounds and the content varies
with the extraction method. pH, emulsifiers and overall solubility affect
the hue. Oil soluble Annattos have a brighter hue.
Fruits are dried and seeds extracted from them are crushed. The seeds have
a coating of an oily paste that contains bixin. Bixin is a yellow orange
carotenoid. It is extracted using aqueous alkaline solution and vegetable
Vegetable oil solvent gives oil soluble bixin, Alkaline solution gives
water soluble norbixin and Propyline Glycol yields a combination.
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